It is NOT a tutorial. Hopefully, this book is what you'll reach for when you want find out what Peter Norton or the "official" references glossed over. This manual is intended to replace the various expensive references needed to program for the DOS environment, that stack of magazines threatening to take over your work area, and those odd tables and charts you can never find when you need them.
Newer keyboards may incorporate even further additions, such as Internet access World Wide Web navigation keys and multimedia access to media players buttons. Mechanical, visual, and functional layouts[ edit ] As noted before, the layout of a keyboard may refer to its mechanical physical arrangement of keysvisual physical labeling of keysor functional software response to a keypress layout.
Write arabic numbers keyboard for laptop layouts[ edit ] A comparison of common mechanical layouts. The ISO mechanical layout center left is common, e. Compared with the ANSI layout top leftthe enter key is vertical rather than horizontal.
In addition, the left shift key is smaller, to make room for an additional key to its right. The JIS mechanical layout bottom right is the basis for Japanese keyboards. Here it is the right-hand shift key that is smaller. Furthermore, the space bar and backspace key are also smaller, to make room for four additional keys.
Mechanical layouts only address tangible differences among keyboards. When a key is pressed, the keyboard does not send a message such as the A-key is depressed but rather the left-most main key of the home row is depressed. Technically, each key has an internal reference number, "raw keycodes", and these numbers are what is sent to the computer when a key is pressed or released.
The keyboard and the computer each have no information about what is marked on that key, and it could equally well be the letter A or the digit 9. The user of the computer is requested to identify the functional layout of the keyboard when installing the operating system. In fact, the mechanical layouts referred such as "ISO" and "ANSI" comply to the primary recommendations in the named standards, while each of these standards in fact also allows the other way.
Keyboard layout in this sense may refer either to this broad categorization or to finer distinctions within these categories.
Visual layouts[ edit ] A visual layout consisting of both factory-printed symbols and customized stickers. A Visual layout refers to the symbols printed on the physical keycaps. Visual layouts vary by language, country, and user preference, and any one mechanical and functional layout can be employed with a number of different visual layouts.
For example, the "ISO" keyboard layout is used throughout Europe, but typical French, German, and UK variants of mechanically identical keyboards appear different because they bear different legends on their keys.
Even blank keyboards — with no legends — are sometimes used to learn typing skills or by user preference. Some users choose to attach custom labels on top of their keycaps.
This can be e. Functional layouts[ edit ] The functional layout of the keyboard refers to the mapping between the physical keys, such as the A key, and software events, such as the letter "A" appearing on the screen. Usually the functional layout is set to match the visual layout of the keyboard being used, so that pressing a key will produce the expected result, corresponding to the legends on the keyboard.
However, most operating systems have software that allow the user to easily switch between functional layouts, such as the language bar in Microsoft Windows. For example, a user with a Swedish keyboard who wishes to type more easily in German may switch to a functional layout intended for German — without regard to key markings — just as a Dvorak touch typist may choose a Dvorak layout regardless of the visual layout of the keyboard used.
Customized functional layouts[ edit ] See also: Overlay keyboard Functional layouts can be redefined or customized within the operating system, by reconfiguring operating system keyboard driver, or with a use of a separate software application.
Transliteration is one example of that whereby letters in other language get matched to visible Latin letters on the keyboard by the way they sound. Thus, a touch typist can type various foreign languages with a visible English-language keyboard only.
Mixed hardware-to-software keyboard extensions exist to overcome above discrepancies between functional and visual layouts. A keyboard overlay  is a plastic or paper masks that can be placed over the empty space between the keys, providing the user with the functional use of various keys.
Alternatively, a user applies keyboard stickers with an extra imprinted language alphabet and adds another keyboard layout via language support options in the operating system.
In the past, complex software that mapped many non-standard functions to the keys such as a flight simulator would be shipped with a "keyboard overlay", a large sheet of paper with pre-cut holes matching the key layout of a particular model of computer.
When placed over the keyboard, the overlay provided a quick visual reference as to what each key's new function was, without blocking the keys or permanently modifying their appearance.
The overlay was often made from good-quality laminated paper and was designed to fold up and fit in the game's packaging when not in use. National variants[ edit ] The U. In an operating system configured for a non-English language, the keys are placed differently.
Using a keyboard for alternative languages leads to a conflict: In such cases, each new language may require an additional label on the key, because the standard keyboard layouts do not even share similar characters of different languages.
The United States keyboard layout is used as default in the currently most popular operating systems:A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.
Mechanical layout is the placements and keys of a keyboard. Visual layout is the arrangement of the legends (labels, markings, engravings) that appear on the keys of a keyboard. Navigating with the System Caret. When an object that allows navigation and/or editing of text is focused, you can move through the text using the system caret, also known as the edit cursor..
When the focus is on an object that has the system caret, you can use the arrow keys, page up, page down, home, end, etc. to move through the text.
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D. Data: Strictly speaking the plural of "datum", but now usually considered as a collective noun in the singular, with the plural form "data items" or "items of data".
Data is information in a form which can be processed by a computer. It is usually distinguished from a computer program, which is a set of instructions that a computer carries out.
Dec 10, · - Choose "Hindi" for numbers to stay Hindi, or "Context" for Arabic numbers in English text and Hindi numbers in Arabic text.
If you chose "Context", the number format depends on the keyboard you have selected. I tried it, and it worked. I would be glad if somebody with an English Word could check if my dialogues are correct. Besucher dieser Seite: ** Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC ** USA copyright TXG ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.