Background[ edit ] Before Fowles published The French Lieutenant's Woman inhe had already established his literary reputation with his novels The Collector and The Magus
History My model here is postmodern architecture, that resolutely parodic recalling of the history of architectural forms and functions.
All of these are popular and familiar novels whose metafictional self-reflexivity and intertextuality renders their implicit claims to historical veracity somewhat problematic, to say the least.
But it seems to have found that it can no longer do so in any innocent way: So is the certainty of self-reference implied in the Borgesian claim that both literature and the world are equally fictive realities. The postmodern relationship between fiction and history is an even more complex one of interaction and mutual implication.
And it is a kind of seriously ironic parody that effects both aims: At first glance it would appear that it is only its constant ironic signaling of difference at the very heart of similarity that distinguishes postmodern parody from medieval and Renaissance imitation see Greene For Dante, as for E.
Doctorow, the texts of literature and those of history are equally fair game. Nevertheless, a distinction should be made: The intertextual parody of historiographic metafiction enacts, in a way, the views of certain contemporary historiographers see Canary and Kozicki: Clearly, then, what I want to call postmodernism is a paradoxical cultural phenomenon, and it is also one that operates across many traditional disciplines.
In contemporary theoretical discourse, for instance, we find puzzling contradictions: In the postmodern novel the conventions of both fiction and historiography are simultaneously used and abused, installed and subverted, asserted and denied. Perhaps one of the reasons why there has been such heated debate on the definition of postmodernism recently is that the implications of the doubleness of this parodic process have not been fully examined.
Novels like The Book of Daniel or The Public Burning-whatever their complex intertextual layering-can certainly not be said to eschew history, any more than they can be said to ignore either their moorings in social reality see Graff or a clear political intent see Eagleton As David Lodge has put it, postmodernism short-circuits the gap between text and world 0.
Discussions of postmodernism seem more prone than most to confusing self-contradictions, again perhaps because of the paradoxical nature of the subject itself. This would, then, be art which sees history only in aesthetic terms As we shall see, an examination of the novels of Toni Morrison, E.
When that past is the literary period we now seem to label as 5 LINDA HUTCHEON odernism, then what is both instated and then subverted is the notion of the work of art as a closed, self-sufficient, autonomous object deriving its unity from the formal interrelations of its parts.
It is a contemporary critical truism that realism is really a set of conventions, that the representation of the real is not the same as the real itself. What historiographic metafiction challenges is both any naive realist concept of representation and any equally naive textualist or formalist assertions of the total separation of art from the world.
Have we ever not been in such a crisis?
To parody is not to destroy the past; in fact, to parody is both to enshrine the past and to question it. And this is the postmodern paradox. Out of these ideas she developed a more strictly formalist theory of the irreducible plurality of texts within and behind any given text, thereby deflecting the critical focus away from the notion of the subject here, the author to the idea of textual productivity.
Kristeva and her colleagues at Tel Quel in the late sixties and early seventies mounted a collective attack on the founding subject alias: Nevertheless, it would seem that even though we can no longer talk comfortably of authors and sources and influenceswe still need a critical language in which to discuss those ironic allusions, those re-contextualized quotations, those double-edged parodies both of genre and of specific works that proliferate in modernist and postmodernist texts.
This, of course, is where the concept of intertextuality has proved so useful. As later defined by Roland Barthes Image and Michael Riffaterreintertextuality replaces the challenged authortext relationship with one between reader and text, one that situates the locus of textual meaning within the history of discourse itself.
A literary work can actually no longer be considered original; if it were, it could have no meaning for its reader. It is only as part of prior discourses that any text derives meaning and significance.
Not surprisingly, this theoretical redefining of aesthetic value has coincided with a change in the kind of art being produced.
Postmodernly parodic composer George Rochberg, in the liner notes to the Nonesuch recording of his String Quartet no. While postmodernism, as I am defining it here, is perhaps somewhat less promiscuously extensive, the notion of parody as opening the text up, rather than closing it down, is an important one: Typically contradictory, intertextuality in postmodern art both provides and undermines context.
It is perhaps clearer now why it has been claimed that to use the term intertextuality in criticism is not just to avail oneself of a useful conceptual tool: But its usefulness as a theoreticalframework that is both hermeneutic and formalist is obvious in dealing with historiographic metafiction that demands of the reader not only the recognition of textualized traces of the literary and historical past but also the awareness of what has been done-through irony-to those traces.
We can only do so by way of texts-including his own Il Milionefrom which Calvino parodically takes his frame tale, his travel plot, and his characterization Musarra Umberto Eco, writing of his novel The Name of the Rose, claims: Eliot, among others and those of history medieval chronicles, religious testimonies.Historiographic metafiction manages to satisfy such a desire for “worldly” grounding while at the same time querying the very basis of the authority of that grounding.
As David Lodge has put it, postmodernism short-circuits the gap between text and world ( 0).
Historiographic metafiction works to situate itself within historical discourse without surrendering its autonomy as fiction. And it is a kind of seriously ironic parody that effects both aims. Historiographic literature is a style of writing that is found in The Wars, it is a style the critiques or gives somewhat of a commentary on the writing of history.
However the historiographic nature of this book is only half of the major concept. Historiographic Metafiction By Nasrullah Mambrol on April 5, • (0) A term originally coined by Linda Hutcheon, in A Poetics of Postmodernism, historiographic metafiction includes those postmodern works, usually popular novels, which are “both intensely self-reflexive and paradoxically lay claim to historical events and personages”.
Introduction to Historiographic Metafiction The term “historiographic metafiction” was coined by Linda Hutcheon who is a literary theorist. Hutcheon has defined historiographic metafiction as novels that have gained a lot of popularity and attention and contain the traits of being extremely self-reflexive and claiming to the personages of.
Menu; What is historiography? Parts of a historiographic essay; A sample historiographic essay; Works cited; What is historiography? In a nutshell, historiography is the history of history. Rather than subjecting actual events - say, the Rape of Nanking - to historical analysis, the subject of historiography is the history of the history of the event: the way it has been written, the sometimes.