It has seemed to me worth while to show from the history of civilization just what war has done and has not done for the welfare of mankind. In the eighteenth century it was assumed that the primitive state of mankind was one of Arcadian peace, joy, and contentment. In the nineteenth century the assumption went over to the other extreme — that the primitive state was one of universal warfare. This, like the former notion, is a great exaggeration.
Rarely has the international community been so intensively focused as now on the need to revamp and adapt our international institutions and organizations to the requirements and needs of a new age. Discussions of this kind are by no means unprecedented. For what is commonly described today as "UN reform" has always been on the agenda of the organization in one way or another.
But the radically novel situation created by the demise of the Cold War, the continuing and deepening rift between North and South, together with short-term pressures and concerns, have given to this debate a new sense of urgency and acuity.
Such essential questions as the place of the United Nations in international affairs, the functions it should be assigned in the international arena, as well as the services the international community can expect from it, are being scrutinized through the ongoing deliberations now taking place in no fewer than five different groups established by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
There are significant areas of agreement among the actors involved. But some questions remain politically controversial. Others are highly con- tentious. In brief, the search for a durable consensus is likely to be a lengthy and delicate one.
The stakes of this grand debate, however, are high, as its implications are global in scope and significance.
For this reason alone, it would need to be nurtured and sustained by a vigorous process of intellectual policy reflection and policy analysis. It is against this back- drop that the University organized last fall in Tokyo a symposium which brought together scholars, UN officials and policy makers from all over the world.
The purpose of the meeting was to flesh out and launch a major research effort focused on the "United Nations System in the Twenty-first Century" UN UN21 is an extension and integral part of a long-term programme of study and reflection spelled out in the report of an advisory team which I convened last year to define a focused framework for UNU research and advanced training in the broad field of peace and global governance.
The specific objective of the project is to examine how international organizations, especially the United Nations, are coping with challenges in five key issue areas - peace and security, economic development, the environment, human dignity and political governance - and to explore alternative models that would best meet the needs of the international community in the next century.
Global citizenship, market forces, regional arrangements, states and sovereignty and international organization will provide the substantive foci of this work. As a research, training and dissemination exercise, UN21 is expected to span the next five years.
It will be carried out under the umbrella of a high-level international advisory board which will provide advice about evolving research priorities. Specific substantive research objectives will be defined at annual agenda-setting workshops which will meet in the spring of each year.
Annual symposia held in the fall will provide outlets for the work accomplished in each research issue area. The highest priority will be given to the dissemination of the work as it progresses. Occasional papers and specific reports will be issued at regular intervals highlighting research outcomes.
The papers presented at the annual symposia will be published in yearly reports.
The entire process should lead to the publication of bound volumes by the end of the project. The aim is to produce a steady stream of academically sound, timely, politically relevant and action-oriented studies shedding new light on some of the key questions now raised about the United Nations, the foundations of its authority and the scope of its legitimate role in a rapidly evolving environment.
It is our hope that these studies will promote the deliberative process now unfolding among scholars and practitioners both within and outside the United Nations.
I would also like to note here our appreciation for the official support of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and the Nihon Keizai Shimbun for the November symposium. As the post-Cold War euphoria faded, the future of the United Nations became clouded by widespread scepticism and disillusionment about its roles and capabilities.
Moreover, the world organization is crippled by heavy debts and entrenched bureaucracies. Nonetheless, pessimism about the United Nations should not limit its possibilities for the future. The United Nations is a product of its Member States.
It is malleable to their wishes and political will. The governments and peoples of the world determine the future of the United Nations. If they wish to reconstruct the world body as an effective institution, they must do so.Financial repression is a revolving set of policies where the government insidiously takes wealth from the private sector, and more specifically makes it easier for government to finance its debt.
In today’s environment this includes. The Global Financial System Is About To Shift: Part I October 13 | From: TheMindUnleashed Behind all the chatter of who will be the United States’ next President, there is . Financial Repression in the United States Essay - Financial Repression in the United States In times of economic hardships and massive amounts of accumulated debt, governments must look at ways in which they can resolve such indebtedness and put their respective economies back on track towards periods of healthy growth and hopeful .
Financial repression, in a nutshell, refers to a set of government policies that create an environment of low or negative real interest rates, with the unstated intention of generating cheap funding for government spending.
Civil libertarians are increasingly alarmed by the trend towards increased political repression in the United States. Political candidates and organizations that are out of favor with the establishment are now being labeled as “dangerous” and as “potential terrorists” in official government reports.
Racial Repression in the United States Essay - The transition of American ideology in the 's shifting from the debate on slavery to the idea of Manifest Destiny was a crucial step in our future globalization as a nation.