History, Resistance to Apartheid Robert Sobukwe, Battle of Blood River, Sharpeville Massacre, apartheid laws, underground organization In the South African Native National Congress was founded by a group of black urban and traditional leaders who opposed the policies of the first Union of South Africa government, especially laws that appropriated African land.
It also neglects the colonial-era power dynamic of which African societies and institutions were essential components. After the Berlin Conference of —85, at which the most powerful European countries agreed upon rules for laying claim to particular African territories, the British, French, Germans, Italians, Spanish, Belgians, and Portuguese set about formally implementing strategies for the long-term occupation and control of Africa.
The conquest had begun decades earlier—and in the case of Angola and South Africa, centuries earlier. But after the Berlin Conference it became more systematic and overt. In fact, by Western Europeans had mastered the art of divide, conquer, and rule, honing their skills over four hundred years of imperialism and exploitation in the Americas, Asia, and the Pacific.
In addition, the centuries of extremely violent, protracted warfare among themselves, combined with the technological advances of the Industrial Revolution, produced unmatched military might.
When, rather late in the period of European colonial expansion, Europeans turned to Africa to satisfy their greed for resources, prestige, and empire, they quickly worked their way into African societies to gain allies and proxies, and to co-opt the conquered kings and chiefs, all to further their exploits.
Consequently, the African responses to this process, particularly the ways in which they resisted it, were complex. The Complexities of Resistance Adding to the complexity was the fact that rapid European imperial expansion in Africa did not necessarily change relationships among African communities.
Those in conflict with one another tended to remain in conflict, despite the impending threat from the French, British, Germans, and other powers. There was, moreover, no broadly accepted African identity to unite around during this period.
The strongest identities were communal and, to a lesser extent, religious, which begins to explain the presence of African participants in European conquests of other African societies.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, for example, in what is now Ghana, conflict between the Fante and Asante, which predated British designs on the kingdom of Asante, motivated the Fante to join the British against the Asante, who at the time seemed to be their greatest threat.
As they resisted European invasions, they confronted both European and African soldiers. That is, they confronted a political hierarchy imposed by Western Europeans that included African proxies.
The power was European, but the face of it on the local level was often African. Despite these seeming contradictions, it remains insufficient to speak of African responses to the imposition of colonial rule as a choice between either collaboration or resistance.
It was possible to resist colonial rule through collaboration with the colonizers in one instance and in the next to resist European authority.
It was also possible to limit European political control through some form of collaboration with European generals or colonial administrators. This is all to suggest that Africans evaluated their circumstances, assessed possible actions and consequences, to make rational responses.
Some form of resistance, moreover, remained constant during the period of formal European political dominance. Ethiopia stands alone, however, as the one African society to successfully defend itself against an invading European army and remain free of direct European political domination.CONTENT OF CIVIL RESISTANCE IN SOUTH AFRICA This is an essay question on Civil Society Protest in South Africa.
In an essay question, it is very important that you underline key words. [From: The Law and the Prophets: Black Consciousness in South Africa. Dec 26, · GRADE PAPER TWO – QUESTION FOUR ESSAY TOPIC. June 23, ~ historybrackenhigh. TOPIC FOUR: CIVIL RESISTANCE s to s: SOUTH AFRICA.
Black South Africans who participated in the Tricameral system were . Apartheid in South Africa Essay - Apartheid in South Africa Apartheid is the political policy of racial segregation. In Afrikaans, it means apartness, and it was pioneered in by the South African National Party when it came to power.
The apartheid regime was marked by racial discrimination and harsh and oppressive legislature mandated to enforce this heinous activities. However, South Africa was able grow in terms of infrastructure as compared to the other African states. . South Africa, later known as the Republic of South Africa, is a country where the people repeatedly experienced injustice and corruption from their respective governments, the apartheid and the African National Congress.
Black resistance in South Africa took two main forms during the 's: industrial action and Black Conciousness. The government were unable to effectively deal with both of these movements and, in the end, decided that they needed to adress apartheid itself.
Mean while, many black leaders were imprisoned and even murdered by the government police.2/5(4).