An introduction to the history of the attack on pearl harbor

Husband Kimmel and Walter Short Japanese: Chuichi Nagumo and Isoroku Yamamoto Outcome: On December 8, President Franklin D. On the southern end of Oahu, Pearl Harbor held a 22, acre naval base.

An introduction to the history of the attack on pearl harbor

Introduction Features Introduction to the Attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese military leaders recognized American naval strength as the chief deterrent to war with the United States.

Early inAdmiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet, had initiated planning for a surprise attack on the United States Pacific Fleet at the beginning of any hostilities that the Japanese might undertake.

The assumption was that before the United States could recover from a surprise blow, the Japanese would be able to seize all their objectives in the Far East, and could then hold out indefinitely. By September the Japanese had practically completed secret plans for a huge assault against Malaya, the Philippines, and the Netherlands East Indies, to be coordinated with a crushing blow on the Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Island of Oahu.

The Pearl Harbor Memorial

The force of some 30 ships included six aircraft carriers with about planes, of which approximately took part in the subsequent attack. At the same time, a Japanese Advance Expeditionary Force of some 20 submarines was assembled at Kure naval base on the west coast of Honshu to cooperate in the attack.

Submarines of the Advance Expeditionary Force began their eastward movement across the Pacific in mid-November, refueled and resupplied in the Marshalls, and arrived near Oahu about December 5 Hawaiian time. On the night of December five midget two-man submarines that had been carried "piggy-back" on large submarines cast off and began converging on Pearl Harbor.

Beginning at and ending ata total of some planes were launched in three waves. These planes rendezvoused to the south and then flew toward Oahu for coordinated attacks. Eight battleships of the Fleet were there, but the aircraft carriers were all at sea.

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Army forces in Hawaii, including the 24th and 25th Infantry Divisions, were under the command of Lt. Short, Commanding General of the Hawaiian Department.

On the several airfields were a total of about Navy and Army planes of all types, of which less than were available for combat or observation purposes. The Japanese air attack on Pearl Harbor and on the airfields of Oahu began at on December 7, and ended shortly before Quickly recovering from the initial shock of surprise, the Americans fought back vigorously with antiaircraft fire.

Devastation of the airfields was so quick and thorough that only a few American planes were able to participate in the counterattack. The Japanese were successful in accomplishing their principal mission, which was to cripple the Pacific Fleet.

They sunk three battleships, caused another to capsize, and severely damaged the other four. All together the Japanese sank or severely damaged 18 ships, including the 8 battleships, three light cruisers, and three destroyers.

An introduction to the history of the attack on pearl harbor

On the airfields the Japanese destroyed American planes Army 74, Navy 87 and seriously damaged Army 71, Navy The Navy and Marine Corps suffered a total of 2, casualties of which 2, were deaths Navy 2, Marines and wounded NavyMarines The Army as of midnight, 10 December lost killed or died of wounds, seriously wounded and slightly wounded.

In addition, at least 57 civilians were killed and nearly as many seriously injured. The Japanese lost 29 planes over Oahu, one large submarine on 10 Decemberand all five of the midget submarines.

Their personnel losses according to Japanese sources were 55 airmen, nine crewmen on the midget submarines, and an unknown number on the large submarines. The Japanese carrier task force sailed away undetected and unscathed.

On December 8,within less than an hour after a stirring, six-minute address by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Congress voted, with only one member dissenting, that a state of war existed between the United States and Japan, and empowered the President to wage war with all the resources of the country.

Congress, this time without a dissenting vote, immediately recognized the existence of a state of war with Germany and Italy, and also rescinded an article of the Selective Service Act prohibiting the use of American armed forces beyond the Western Hemisphere.

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An introduction to the history of the attack on pearl harbor

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naval ships at Pearl Harbor, with the aim of devastating the entire US Pacific fleet. The two-hour attack left 2, Americans dead and 1, injured, and was followed by a formal declaration. Introduction to the Attack on Pearl Harbor. Japanese military leaders recognized American naval strength as the chief deterrent to war with the United States.

Early in , Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet, had initiated planning for a surprise attack on the United States Pacific Fleet at the beginning of any hostilities that the Japanese might undertake.

Pearl Harbor is located in Hawaii on the island of O'ahu. Hawaii is located in the Pacific Ocean between California and Japan.

During the time of World War II, Hawaii was not a state, but a US territory. Before the Attack World War II had been raging in Europe and Asia for two years, but the United.

Pearl Harbor: Introduction